Manufacturing Articles From AMAZINES.COM

Thermal Spray Foam Insulation is utilized in buildings, and refers back to the application of thermal insulated materials, that are applied utilizing various spraying strategies, into a roof house or wall cavity to stop heat loss. Nevertheless, the financial evaluation exhibits that the investment in thermal insulation of constructing exterior walls does not always must be economically worthwhile for the investor. The impact of orientation, place of the PCM layer, phase change temperature, and weather situations was studied by Izquierdo-Barrientos et al. (2012), and they discovered that the PCM helps to reduce the utmost and amplitude of the instantaneous warmth flux. Since then, the corporate, based in 1983, has manufactured the light-weight combination Poraver® expanded glass granules at its production websites in Europe and North America for customers and distributors throughout the world.

The Candy’s Catalogue began that 12 months as an annual reference listing detailing building products, suppliers, and producers. Therefore, many insulation materials (e.g.polystyrene) function just by having a lot of fuel-crammed pockets which forestall large-scale convection. These supplies are very poor conductors of warmth and are subsequently good thermal insulators. There may be a wide variety of products starting from unfastened pelleted materials appropriate for cavity wall insulation, to rolls and light-weight boards for loft insulation and dense slabs used for light load bearing software in flooring and roofs.

Glass wool generally is a loose fill materials, blown into attics, or, together with an active binder sprayed on the underside of structures, sheets and panels that can be utilized to insulate flat surfaces such as cavity wall insulation, ceiling tiles, curtain walls in addition to ducting. provides a hundred and forty four isolation rockwool products. The easy dealing with of mineral wool is further supported by a flexible choice of ‘system products’ for different downside solutions (Fig. We’re the professional in produce and sale Best Price Heat Thermal Insulation Material Rock Wool Pipe for buildings,lie glass wool,rock wool,rubber foam ,rubber palstic We want to set up business relations with you company.

It is broadly utilized in wall insulation, petroleum, chemical business, machine room noise discount, freeway sound absorption barrier, electrical power, navy merchandise, and so forth., and is known as inexperienced environmental protection insulation materials by users. Expanded polystyrene (EPS) is a inflexible and tough, closed-cell foam. Detailed additional information on the Poraver® products can be downloaded here as a PDF. Also, before the froth is protected, naked flames or excessive temperatures must not be allowed to penetrate the froth space from outdoors, e.g. by welding or reducing the plates behind the insulation.

In case you stuff insulating material in one room however in the event you ignore all different rooms, it’s apparent that the power effectivity of your own home goes to suffer. Thermal insulation is the reduction of warmth switch (the transfer of thermal power between objects of differing temperature) between objects in thermal contact or in range of radiative affect. Reference desk – Serving as virtual librarians, Wikipedia volunteers tackle your questions on a variety of topics. The designing is a vital which includes location of the plant, temperature circumstances and repair conditions 32 Thickness of insulation can be very important in designing, there’s a thickness beneath which the insulation is insufficient and the loss of heat is extra 33 Larger thickness results into increased value enter with just a little thermal savings 34 , 35 Thus, economical thickness must be calculated for given insulation materials.

Thermal spray foam insulation is a vital issue to achieving thermal consolation for the buildings occupants, and thermal spray foam insulation reduces undesirable warmth loss, and reduces the vitality requirements of cooling and heating techniques. In order to accomplish small gasoline cell formation in man-made thermal insulation, glass and polymer supplies can be utilized to trap air in a foam-like construction. You should use the passive absorption technique to reduce sound; mineral wood insulation or acoustic foam forces sound wave to alter route a number of time and journey a great distance earlier than it may well utterly cross by the insulation material.

Wooden is utilized in building kayaks as a result of they’re durable when in comparison with metal and fiber glass. Foam insulation (or spray foam as it is generally known as) is thought to be preferable to utilizing fiberglass sheets as a result of it could actually fit into the smallest spaces. Glass wool ornamental acoustic board is offered for the inside suspended ceilings in resorts, halls, theaters, music halls, stadiums, convention rooms, ships and residential houses. Foam glass is a porous glass foam materials. Many of these foam spraying techniques and supplies don’t comprise or use any CFCs.

There’s a have to develop more efficient insulating materials by way of heat switch, water repellent properties, ease of software, energy, and so on. We convey finest high quality excessive temperature insulation materials, which conform to worldwide high quality requirements. Therefore, the upper the number of cells (which may preserve the gas stagnant) and the smaller their size, the decrease the thermal conductivity of such insulating materials. Instantly after formation, the fibres are sprayed with resinous binders, water repellents and mineral oils as appropriate and fall below suction onto a transferring conveyor which takes the wool to one of three production traces (Determine 30.three).

Laine de roche nodulée à souffler mécaniquement. One other development, a thermal-bridge-free insulating layer could be utilized with material rolls for cavity masonry (cavity wall insulation). Rock or stone wool thus normally accommodates 30% recycled uncooked materials, i.e. waste glass, zero.5 to 7% binder (phenolic resin polymer) and zero.5% mineral oil, the larger portion composed of the pure uncooked materials mentioned above. When you think about that air mattresses are liable to breakage that could probably go away you without any sleeping help in the course of the night time, it’s easy to see that reminiscence foam mattresses are the better choice.

Because of having our personal Building Conservation Staff we also have actual world information of the products we provide. If the inside of an insulated fish hold is colder than the outside air, the fish hold draws heat from the outside. The ecological prices connected with the efficiency of thermal insulation are much decrease than the ecological income obtained within the use phase of the constructing. Thermal insulation of exterior walls is, nevertheless, useful for the surroundings. The United States Lycopene Trade report offers a comprehensive account of the United States Lycopene market.

How to increase PV system weather resistance

The summer has arrived, and the rainy season in the south has arrived. After the May Day holiday, cold air began to affect the northern part of China, and the rain gradually increased, and the local temperature in Northeast China and North China exceeded 10 °C. At the same time, heavy rainfall in the south has also started,Under the severe weather of strong humidity, constant rainfall and thunderstorms, if the operation and maintenance of photovoltaic power plants are not systematically carried out, it is easy to cause safety hazards. How to deal with them?omega profile supplier

1.lightning strikes

Lightning is mainly divided into two types of hazards: direct lightning strikes and indirect lightning strikes. Direct lightning protection: Set up metal lightning protection grounding conductors on tall buildings, including lightning rods, lightning protection belts and grounding devices, which can release the huge thunderstorm cloud layer charge. All electrical equipment in a photovoltaic system is not protected against direct lightning strikes. Protection of inductive lightning: The photovoltaic system has lightning protection modules in electrical equipment such as combiner boxes and inverters to protect against indirect lightning strikes. The inverter has two-level lightning protection and three-level lightning protection. The second-level lightning protection adopts lightning protection module. It is generally used for medium and large-scale photovoltaic power stations. There are no high-rise buildings around the power station, and lightning protection devices are used for three-level lightning protection. It is used in small-scale photovoltaic power plants for household use, and there are high buildings around the power station.

How to increase PV system weather resistance


Photovoltaic modules are tested for impact from qualified photovoltaic power plants purchased from reliable large manufacturers, so hail will not affect PV modules. However, after the hail, daily inspections are indispensable. If the photovoltaic power station has a significant drop in power generation or other abnormal conditions after the hail, the owner must notify the factory after-sales personnel to conduct the test.

3.heavy rain

If the roof of the PV power plant is installed as a sloping roof, there is basically no need to worry about the rainstorm. If it is a flat roof, it is best to consider the drainage problem when designing and installing the PV power station. When the rainfall is too large, the installation of the flat roof is relatively low, so that the PV modules are soaked by rain. In addition, during the inspection after the rain, do not directly touch the connection between the inverter, the PV module and the power supply cable by hand, and wear rubber gloves and rubber boots to prevent accidents.


In the case of plum rain or smog weather and low solar radiation, if the operating voltage of the photovoltaic system does not reach the starting voltage of the inverter, the photovoltaic system will not work. Since the grid-connected power generation system is connected to the grid, when the photovoltaic power generation system is unable to operate, the grid’s electricity will be automatically replenished, so there is no shortage of power and power outage in the rainy weather and smog.

When inspecting a photovoltaic module, the thermal imaging portion is generally used to lock the heat generating portion, or the disconnection detector is used to check the disconnection portion and the bypass diode failure. If the power generation is significantly reduced or other abnormal conditions occur after the component is smashed, the user should promptly notify the operation and maintenance personnel to check the PV system, and if necessary, return it to the original factory for testing, so as to replace the damaged PV module in time.z profile steel

What can be done to build a photovoltaic system power station to ensure stable power generation and weather resistance?

1.Do the early design of the power station: When designing the photovoltaic power station, you need to choose a suitable location. For example, if the photovoltaic power station is built on the roof, it should be considered that the roof fixed load, wind pressure load, snow pressure load, and seismic load are generally “Building Structure Load Specification”, because this is the only way to avoid damage to the power station due to rain and rain. the installation work: the installation can not be arbitrary, the installation process of the power station should be southward, so that it can fully accept the sun’s light. The installation angle is theoretically equal to or close to the local latitude, and the arrangement and spacing need to be combined with the local sunshine and roof structure dimensions. In addition, we must choose good equipment to effectively extend the life of photovoltaic power plants.

All in all, in order to stabilize the photovoltaic power station in the continuous bad weather, it is necessary to design according to the design, installation and selection, in order to prevent the damage of the photovoltaic power station, and let the power station easily pass the season of frequent rain. Steady operation and security.

Solar photovoltaic module battery assembly process

Solar photovoltaic module battery assembly process:

Front side welding: The bus bar is welded to the main grid line of the front side (negative electrode) of the battery. The bus bar is a tinned copper strip. The welding machine can spot weld the strip on the main grid line in multiple points. The heat source for welding is an infrared lamp (using the thermal effect of infrared rays). The length of the ribbon is approximately twice the length of the side of the battery. The extra solder ribbon is attached to the back electrode of the rear cell when soldered on the back side.l profile manufacturers

Battery test: Due to the randomness of the production conditions of the battery, the performance of the produced battery is not the same. Therefore, in order to effectively combine the batteries with the same performance or similar performance, the battery should be classified according to its performance parameters; The battery is sorted by testing the output parameters (current and voltage) of the battery. In order to improve the utilization rate of the battery, a qualified battery assembly is produced.

Solar photovoltaic module battery assembly process

Binding: similar to attaching a frame to the glass; attaching an aluminum frame to the glass component to increase the strength of the component, further sealing the battery component and prolonging the service life of the battery. The gap between the bezel and the glass component is filled with silicone resin. Each frame is connected by a corner key.

Solder junction box: solder a box at the back of the assembly to facilitate the connection between the battery and other equipment or batteries.

High-voltage test: High-voltage test refers to applying a certain voltage between the component frame and the electrode lead to test the pressure resistance and insulation strength of the component to ensure that the photovoltaic component is not damaged under the harsh natural conditions (lightning strike, etc.).

Component testing: The purpose of the test is to calibrate the output power of the battery, test its output characteristics, and determine the quality level of the component.

back series: back welding is to connect 36 batteries in series to form a component string, the current process is manual, the battery is mainly positioned by a membrane board, there are 36 grooves on the top of the battery The size of the slot corresponds to the size of the battery. The position of the slot has been designed. Different specifications of the components use different templates. The operator uses the soldering iron and solder wire to solder the front electrode (negative) of the “front battery” to the back. On the back electrode (positive electrode) of the battery, 36 pieces are sequentially connected in series and the leads are soldered to the positive and negative electrodes of the component string.

Laminated laying: After the back side is connected in series and passed the inspection, the component string, glass and cut EVA, glass fiber and backing board are laid according to a certain level, ready for lamination. The glass is coated with a layer of reagent to increase the bond strength between the glass and the EVA. When laying, ensure the relative position of the battery string and glass and other materials, adjust the distance between the batteries, and lay the foundation for lamination.

Photovoltaic module lamination: Put the laid battery into the laminating machine, evacuate the air in the assembly by vacuuming, and then heat to fuse the EVA to bond the battery, glass and back sheet together; finally cool the removal assembly c profile steel manufacturers. The lamination process is a key step in the production of components, and the lamination temperature lamination time is determined by the nature of the EVA. When using fast curing EVA, the lamination cycle time is approximately 25 minutes. The curing temperature was 150 °C.

Trimming: When the EVA is melted after lamination, it will be extended outward to form a burr due to the pressure, so it should be cut off after lamination.

The advantages of photovoltaic supports

The solar photovoltaic bracket itself belongs to the steel structure category, and the relationship with the photovoltaic power generation technology is not close, and it is relatively reduced from the technical difficulty. However, in the face of the current complicated and complicated market in China, the manufacturers are still in the era of melee, and the quality of the products of various manufacturers is also uneven. The materials, surface treatment and stress design are more difficult to profile supplier

the advantages of photovoltaic supports

What are the advantages of photovoltaic supports?

1.The needs of different countries and regions with different latitude and longitude under different meteorological conditions. Photovoltaic brackets are the most suitable place to install: At present, the most suitable place for installation is schools, factories, hospitals, office buildings and homes, which can meet the different needs of users.

2.The system bracket has the advantages of anti-corrosion, no rust, beautiful appearance and easy installation;

3.Because the system bracket has a stainless steel base, stainless steel than joints, guide rails, side pressure and aluminum rail and other bracket accessories, plus this bracket is often pre-installed before the manufacturer, are equipped with the required screws, so the bracket There is also the advantage of facilitating quick installation on site and saving installation costs;

TurningPoint Energy and Nautilus Solar

TurningPoint Energy and Nautilus Solar announced plans for two Rhode Island community solar power plants, representing 19.1 MWac of community solar power. The 6.68 MW Hopkins Hill project in West Greenwich has been fully developed and is expected to be operational in the first quarter of 2020. The 12.42 MW King project in North Smithfield is expected to be operational by the end of 2020.Steel Profile Manufacturers

These projects were fully developed by TurningPoint Energy as part of the Rhode Island Community Net Metering Solar Pilot Program created in 2016, which focuses on providing renewable energy benefits and reducing the cost of its residential customers.

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Nautilus Solar will be responsible for project management, long-term asset management and maintenance services.

“Community solar energy is a good option for those who don’t have access to solar power, such as those who may not have the right panels, renters or low- and middle-income people,” said National Energy Commissioner Carol Grant. . “With such a community plan, most Rhode Island residents now have access to clean energy at prices lower than they are paying now.”

Developers will plant ground cover plants that are good for pollinators, create habitats for bees, birds, small mammals and other wildlife, and solar projects will create more than 200 jobs.

The DEPCOM Power project, which employs the EPC construction project, plans to begin construction of the Hopkins Hill project in the summer of 2019. The civilian project of the King project is also expected to begin in the summer of 2019.

“These projects showcase Rhode Island, Rhode Island Environmental Management (RIDEM), West Greenwich and North Smithfield towns, and TurningPoint Energy’s collective community solar development and leadership,” said Jared Schoch, president of TurnPoint Energy. “These carefully planned, carefully sited and developed solar projects are now open to subscribers and will be successfully completed soon as part of the Rhode Island Community Solar Pilot Project.”

The King project is adjacent to landfill resources and the Recovery Superfund site, which is currently undergoing long-term remedies from the Environmental Protection Agency. TurningPoint Energy, Nautilus Solar and DEPCOM Power work closely with RIDEM and EPA representatives to ensure that the project design takes into account any potential future remedies that may be required.z profile steel manufacturer

The Hopkins Mountain Project is located in the rural area of ​​West Greenwich. It will sell electricity to residents of West Greenwich and other residents of the state. The project also includes a number of environmental benefits, including sponsoring two Rhode Island Basin watershed observation water quality monitoring points, along the tributaries of Fisherville Brook during the project. The site will be cleared for turtles prior to construction and will include a wildlife friendly fence.

SMA America service center promote more effective technical support

SMA America has announced several updates to its service center to promote more effective technical support. Major expansions include a new, larger central and string inverter laboratory. The service center also features a rooftop photovoltaic system(Steel Profile suppliers) that acts as a real-world laboratory while offsetting energy costs. New features will improve simulation issues, address call failures and provide service training to customers.

SMA America service center promote more effective technical support

The news was in the same week that ABB announced that it would exit the solar inverter business. SMA Marketing Director Brad Dore said, “Although these changes did not take into account a competitor, SMA believes that service is a differentiating factor for inverter suppliers, which is a key reason for SMA to represent the best long-term value. Industry. For any competitors leaving the market, SMA OPTIM offers plant-wide operation and maintenance, including systems using non-SMA inverters. The company also offers utilities and commercial re-power options. A common re-use case is to support those already An isolated factory of an inverter company that no longer operates and has an inverter failure or underperformance.”

The extended lab will allow multiple delegates to work on issues simultaneously. Quick response troubleshooting helps customers quickly query and enable PV professionals on site to get back to work.

“These changes are designed to provide greater technical support to our customer base and provide first-class service,” said Charles Morrill, vice president of customer service at SMA America. “Our representatives are committed to streamline customer consultation at every stage of the plant life cycle.”

Service Center improvements provide expert support and reduce customer risk for utilities, large systems used in storage power plants and PV hybrid systems. With expanded space, SMA can provide higher levels of diagnostics and simulations for solutions using Sunny Central-US, Sunny Central Storage, Sunny Central UP, medium voltage transformers and switchgear.z profile

These new products complement existing service tools, including simulators with working Sunny Boy and Sunny Tripower inverters, as well as communication and monitoring systems to help simulate the problems described by callers. The lab has a complete Sunny Island off-grid system with six Sunny Island inverters, multi-cluster boxes, generators and battery packs. The representative can remotely log in to the customer’s SMA system to directly diagnose and fix problems.

This expansion enables service centers to support and reduce customer risk for all SMA products and solutions in the residential, commercial, utility and storage markets.

What is Solar tracker

The tracker directs the solar panels or modules to the sun. These devices change their direction throughout the day to follow the path of the sun to maximize energy capture.steel omega profile manufacturers

Solar Tracker In photovoltaic systems, the tracker helps to minimize the angle of incidence between the incident light and the panel (the angle the light forms with the line perpendicular to the surface), which increases the energy produced by the device. Concentrated solar photovoltaic power and concentrated solar thermal energy have optics that directly accept sunlight, so the solar tracker must be properly angled to collect energy. All concentrated solar systems have trackers because the system does not generate energy unless it points to the sun correctly.

What is Solar tracker

CGL Manufacturing in Guelph, Ontario and Unimacts Global in Boston, Massachusetts, have formed a strategic alliance to take advantage of the overall footprint of its global manufacturing industry, effective June 12, 2019. These companies will focus on highly specified metal products for industrial applications used by customers. Material handling, construction, forestry, railways, mining, heavy trucks, wind, solar and military.

Product features include machined castings, manufacturing and components for a global network of owned and supplier partners in Canada, the United States, China, India and Eastern Europe.

The partnership will enable customers to leverage the combined expertise of both companies and allow companies to share engineering, quality management, business developers, Steel Profile Manufacturers, supplier partners and manufacturing locations. The strategic alliance will enable global OEM customers to obtain consistent high quality and low cost solutions from a large, stable supplier.

In the solar industry, Unimacts is the OEM for tracking systems, gearboxes, ground anchors and drive trains. Working with CGL will enable a larger global footprint and a more stable supply channel.

The main advantages of galvanized C-profile

Zinc-plated C-shaped steel refers to a new type of steel that uses high-strength steel plate, after cold bending and roll forming, has uniform wall thickness, excellent cross-section performance, high strength, and can save 30% of material with the same strength compared with traditional hot rolling.l Profile steel Manufacturer

The galvanized C-shaped steel has the advantages of adjustable size and high compressive strength. The cold-formed profiled steel is light in weight, but it is in line with the force characteristics of the roofing stringer, so that the mechanical properties of the steel can be utilized by the light. A variety of accessories can be connected into different combinations, beautiful appearance, the use of steel beams, can reduce the weight of building roof, reduce the amount of steel used in engineering, so it is called cost-effective steel, is the replacement of traditional steel such as angle steel, channel steel, steel pipe New construction materials for the purlins.

The main advantages of galvanized C-profile

The main advantages of galvanized C-profile are:

1.Good reliability.

2.sexual protection: each part can be plated with zinc, protected.

3.the toughness of the coating: can withstand mechanical damage during transportation and use.

4.Durable: In the urban area or offshore area, the standard hot-dip galvanized anti-rust layer can be used for 20 years; in the suburbs, it can be used for more than 50 years.

5.Low cost: The galvanizing is more expensive than painting, but in the long run, the cost of galvanizing is low, because galvanizing is durable and durable. time and effort: the galvanizing process is faster than other coating construction methods, and can avoid the time required to paint on the construction site after installation.

Scope of application

Galvanized C-shaped steel is widely used in purlins and wall beams of steel structures, and can also be combined into lightweight building trusses, brackets and other building components. In addition, it can also be used for columns, beams and arms in mechanical light manufacturing.z profile

Solar energy is a renewable new energy source

As we continue to develop new energy industries, we are paying attention to the development and utilization of various new energy sources. Solar energy is a renewable new energy source. It is currently the most important type of new energy, and the photovoltaic support is also followed. Appeared and continuously developed, the photovoltaic support as its name suggests has played a certain supporting role, of course, this is not a simple bracket, but has a high technical, quality, material requirements.Steel Profile suppliers

The purpose of the photovoltaic bracket is to be able to support the fixing and placement of the position of the solar panel, so the material requirements are very important, so many aspects must be considered in the manufacturing process, such as whether it can resist outdoor changes. Whether the weather factor can still function normally in storms or blizzards, whether it can withstand the effects of thunder in thunderstorms, whether it can last for at least 30 years, etc. These are all manufactured. The problem that must be considered when the photovoltaic support is due to the large demand, the process of developing the photovoltaic support is very long, and it takes a lot of manpower and material resources.

Solar energy is a renewable new energy source

This also requires a number of factors to be considered in the use of photovoltaic supports, including the climatic factors to use the location of the photovoltaic support, whether it is rainy, snowy, cold weather, or hot weather, etc., which are necessary in the process of selecting and using. In consideration, only the choice of suitable, safe, and relatively strong, can guarantee the age. Furthermore, the installation of photovoltaic supports is also a problem. During the installation process, it is required to select the best position, which can adapt to different sunlight requirements and facilitate movement, so as to better function.

Before the PV rack is installed, there are many inspection processes and prepared professionals who should understand these issues when installing. First, there are many manufacturers of PV racks, they should choose the local soil environment, or It is a photovoltaic support for some environmental climates. When testing the test items, it is very good to test its appearance and its anti-corrosion coating. It should ensure that these coatings are in good condition and are designed in terms of model specifications and materials. When designing accessories, or some other equipment, it should be very complete, including bolts or some other materials,z profile steel ,according to the relevant provisions of steel structure construction, he will be able to achieve Relevant specification requirements.

The photovoltaic bracket should not be subjected to a forced blow during the installation process, which may cause certain damage to the entire equipment. During the installation of the bracket, its anti-corrosion layer should not be destroyed, because it will play a very important role in the later process. The role of the bracket angle setting, should pay attention to its angle, should be set in a reasonable position, so that it can be very good reception with the sun, the centerline deviation should also be within the specified range, and the vertical deviation The angle, or the whole field of the top level of the bracket should be set, which may bring better results in the later work process.

Moreover, during the process of on-site photovoltaic support construction, the installation of photovoltaic supports requires professional operators to operate. They may stand at the angle of these supports or their position and yaw angle calculations. Consider these issues from a more professional perspective, so you must be able to pay attention to these issues, and you should take some measures to ensure that the correctness of the process and sequence during the installation process is done in bracket installation or bolting. In the process, there are other aspects of the strength and related requirements.

Photovoltaic effect

“Photovoltaic effect”, Refers to the phenomenon that light causes a potential difference between different parts of the semiconductor or semiconductor to which the semiconductor is bonded. It is first the process of converting photons (light waves) into electrons and converting light energy into electrical energy; secondly, it is the process of forming voltage. With voltage, it is like building a dam. If the two are connected, a circuit of current will be formed.Steel Profile suppliers

Photovoltaic power generation is a technology that directly converts light energy into electrical energy by utilizing the photovoltaic effect of the semiconductor interface. The key component of this technology is the solar cell. The solar cells are packaged and protected in series to form a large-area solar cell module, and then combined with a power controller and the like to form a photovoltaic power generation device. The advantage of photovoltaic power generation is that it is less restricted by geographical area, because the sun shines on the earth; the photovoltaic system also has the advantages of safe and reliable, no noise, low pollution, no need to consume fuel and erecting transmission lines to generate electricity on site and short construction period. The photovoltaic effect is referred to as the photovoltaic effect, which refers to the phenomenon that light causes a potential difference between a heterogeneous semiconductor or a different portion of a semiconductor and a metal combination.

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Photovoltaic effect refers to the phenomenon that light causes a potential difference between a heterogeneous semiconductor or a different portion where a semiconductor and a metal are combined. It is first the process of converting photons (light waves) into electrons and converting light energy into electrical energy; secondly, it is the process of forming voltage. With voltage, it is like building a dam. If the two are connected, a circuit of current will be formed.

When the P-N junction is illuminated, the intrinsic and extrinsic absorption of the photon by the sample will produce photogenerated carriers (electron-hole pairs). However, only the minority carriers excited by the intrinsic absorption can be caused by the photovoltaic effect. Due to the photogenerated holes generated in the P region, the photogenerated electrons generated in the N region are multi-sub States, and are blocked by the barrier and cannot be over-knotted. Only the photogenerated electrons of the P region and the photogenerated holes of the N region and the electron hole pairs (small children) of the junction region can drift over the junction under the built-in electric field when diffused to the vicinity of the junction electric field. The photogenerated electrons are pulled toward the N region, and the photogenerated holes are pulled toward the P region, that is, the electron hole pairs are separated by the built-in electric field. This results in the accumulation of photogenerated electrons near the boundary of the N region and the accumulation of photogenerated holes near the boundary of the P region. z profile

They produce a photogenerated electric field that is opposite to the direction of the built-in electric field of the thermally balanced P-N junction, with the direction from the P region to the N region. This electric field lowers the barrier, and the amount of decrease is the photo-generated potential difference. The P-terminal is positive and the N-terminal is negative. At this time, the Fermi level is separated, thereby generating a voltage drop, and electrodes are applied on both sides of the silicon wafer and connected to the voltmeter. For crystalline silicon solar cells, the typical value of the open circuit voltage is 0.5 to 0.6V. The more electron-hole pairs that are produced by the illumination at the interface layer, the greater the current. The more light energy absorbed by the interface layer, the larger the cell area of ​​the interface layer, and the greater the current formed in the solar cell.