How To For Solar Panel Mounting

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Designed, engineered and manufactured in Australia, SunLock® racking is the major commercial solar mounting method on the Australian market place. If you reside in an area that receives a lot of snow in the winter, becoming able to effortlessly sweep the snow off of your solar panels is a key convenience. If your solar panel contractor advises you that horizontal solar panels are the best selection for your solar demands, you do not want a particular inverter. The Solar PV panels are then clamped to the rails, keeping the panels really close to the roof to minimize wind loading. For one particular point, solar panels require to face either south or west to receive direct sunlight. Once you have purchased your solar panel you will need to have to decide on a secure fixing method, our extensive range of permanent and non permanent solar mounting merchandise consist of cost-free standing A-frames usually employed with caravanners and motorhome users to ground and roof mounting systems created for huge scale PV arrays. You can set up solar panels on the ground of any home, and they’ll generate power. The TerraGrif is a metal spring-toothed blade, positioned in between the module and the mounting structure, making certain the optimum equipotential bonding of a photovoltaic installation. One more truth is that you really require solar cells in order to make your personal solar panel, so you might as properly choose the ones that are a bit pricier but which come with warranty, having assured top quality to help your investment. Even so, there are widespread problems involved in any installation, regardless of whether the array is fixed or tracking, mounted at ground level, or on a pole or constructing. By producing your personal solar cells, you will be virtually generating an imitation of photosynthesis. Moreover, if you do not have the additional space, installing solar panels on the ground will leave small to no area for your lawn, flower beds, or other landscaping. Solar panel efficiency is one particular of many crucial factors to think about and is dependent on each the PV cell variety and cell configuration. Companies making bifacial solar panels include LG energy, Trina solar , Jinko Solar and Yingli Solar. Swivel mounting and tuning the panels will make a dramatic distinction to charging performance. When you consist of the mounting hardware and other gear for your panels, the total weight will be closer to 3-4 pounds per square foot. On the other hand, land (the ground itself) is increasingly pricey and might be usefully employed for a quantity of purposes other than solar array installation. Solar Photovoltaic (PV) modules create electricity from sunlight use of photovoltaic effects of the sun battery semiconductor components, which can be fed into the mains electrical energy provide of a constructing or sold to the public electrical energy grid. In contrast, ground-mounted solar systems can be sized to match your electrical energy consumption without the space restrictions of a rooftop program. We made our saddle-sort post and fork mounts with solar panels in thoughts. A help device for anchoring photovoltaic panels on a roof. 0005 Nonetheless, neither the foregoing Japanese patent application, nor any other recognized land primarily based systems, offer specific critical solutions for assembling and deploying big scale arrays on water, nor does any recognized art teach comprehensive mooring and anchoring options for placement of massive scale arrays on water. Acquiring a mount that is constructed to hold eight panels is significantly a lot more cost-effective than obtaining two mounts developed to hold 4 panels each and every. Pole mounted solar typically incorporates tracking systems, which automatically tilt the solar panels to capture the optimal amount of sunshine. The leading nations of supplier is China, from which the percentage of solar panel assistance frames supply is one hundred% respectively. The third choice you have – is to make up for any lost power by basically adding an additional solar panel. Nonetheless, if you have an older roof or are in any way concerned about regardless of whether your roof can support the additional weight of solar panels, speak to a roofing organization. Ground mount pv systems,higher preassembly ,strength structure and various style and straightforward to set up , ground mount racking will be the very best chooice for your solar panel mount and rack systems. Note: One issue that you do not want is completely flat panels (angle = 0°). They are made to maximize the efficiency of the panels by maintaining them oriented in just the correct way to catch that direct beam of sunlight full on. This indicates allowing the tilt of the panels to alter all through the year, and also allowing the angle of the panel to alter throughout the day.

0032 But one more object is to supply a floating solar panel assistance technique that has minimum volume for shipping. This mount relies on the weight of the PV array, as effectively as concrete blocks, to hold the method in spot. The term solar panel is utilised colloquially for a photo-voltaic (PV) module. These make it easier to take away your solar panels at a later date, or to replace the roofing on your home with out disturbing the panels themselves. Variety of specialized and flexible photovoltaic modules (PV) for ship SOLAR Energy and marine use offered. A solar panel mount (or solar racking technique) is the foundation that holds your solar array in location. If you believe there is a very good chance you’ll want to expand the size of your solar array in the future, it makes sense to get a bigger mount rather than a smaller 1. The Support is pre-assembled,just open it and fix the rail,four measures finish the addition,The tilt-in module can be put into the extruded rail from the any place and can be higher pre-assembled with the these minimizes the time and cost of installation. I think permanent installations are just fine for solar panels but with a solar generator , a portable solar panel mount is truly helpful. ISA Corporation has years of experience constructing and installing solar panel frames and elevated mounting racks. There’s an additional choice, called ground-mounted solar panels. Both of these solar panel mounting frames can be modified to suit your application. Ground Mounts allow you to choose the optimal tilt angle in a south-facing direction. High high quality, extended lasting, well designed solutions for mounting PV modules and arrays. The whole solar panel stand frame effortlessly breaks down to be extremely portable as effectively when not in use. The organization is now pushing the boundaries with the new Tiger range of high-functionality solar panels. Do not attach solar panel to pole mount till mount is securely fit, and pole base has been secured. The Triangle Tilt Mounting Method can be used on open ground or on your roof for that further strength. Lastly, I would suggest if you have flooded batteries to make certain there is a lot of water in the batteries just before the solar panels get to function and monitor the charge carefully for a couple of weeks so you strike the balance amongst charge and consumption. You will use the solder flux for removing the grease out of the solar cells you have and a hand saw is naturally quite required as there will be lots of cutting involved. Photo-voltaic cells use sunlight as a supply of energy and produce direct current electricity A collection of PV modules is called a PV Panel, and a technique of Panels is an Array. If you decide to consist of a tracking system in your installation, you will spend an extra upfront price, but the resulting boost in electrical energy production can make tracking systems price-powerful for many property owners. As a basic rule, most mounting systems want to be much more than 500mm away from any roof edge to comply. 6 shows how solar panels 136 are mounted on and connected to the panel supports by clipping the outer edges 204 of the outer panels to the panel supports employing C- clips 206 and screws, and by clipping the interior edges of all of the panels to the panel supports utilizing panel T-clips 208 and screws. For larger solar panels such as the SunWorks 180 watt panel, take a look at the big adjustable solar panel mounting frame. SunPower – The most efficient panels on the industry, their very best solar panels have a conversion price of 22.8%. A third set of 5ft slotted angle iron pieces can be utilised to make a center crossbeam which is advisable on windy days to aid hold the panels in spot. To discover the smaller contractors that usually provide lower prices, you’ll want to use an installer network like EnergySage You can acquire totally free quotes from vetted installers nearby to you when you register your property on our Solar Marketplace – property owners who get 3 or much more quotes can anticipate to save $5,000 to $10,000 on their solar panel installation. 15 The Spectrolab scientists also predict that concentrator solar cells could obtain efficiencies of much more than 45% or even 50% in the future, with theoretical efficiencies getting about 58% in cells with far more than three junctions. Critiques and info on the very best Solar panels, inverters and batteries from SMA, Fronius, SunPower, SolaX, Q Cells, Trina, Jinko, Selectronic, Tesla Powerwall, ABB.

Since delivering its very first PV mounting program in 1998, Unirac has seasoned outstanding growth of its superior racking systems. The knowledge gained from the implementation of quite a few solar systems resulted in a mounting technique that is ideally suited for all applications – from little stand-alone systems to big grid-connected systems, on pitched and flat roofs as nicely as fronts. There is also no be concerned of stressing your roof technique, or inadvertently letting water into the roofing throughout the mount installation. Due to the variations of solar panel frames across the market, Johnson Brothers can offer you a wide selection of custom shapes necessary for all distinct solar panel frames and structures. This will let you to install over 6.6 kilowatts of panels and typical household loses very little solar production if they set up say eight kilowatts of panels. Panels are well above ground, protected from animals and snow. Normally this style of mount is a flush-mounted system with the panels sitting right on best of the roof, but there are some mount systems that go under the siding, while having supports that are installed underneath the roofing. Getting used a lot of solar generators , I have had to charge them with solar panels numerous occasions. SunRack SFS-FR-03 triangular mounting method with a foldable style saves a lot on installation and transporation. Solar panels only give their very best when they can see the sun. Additionally, the amount of land required for a solar array that generates a productive quantity of electrical power can be considerable. Solar energy systems are an increasingly widespread sight on rooftops all across the U.S., but unless you climb up onto a roof, it can be difficult to figure out how massive solar panels are and how a lot they weigh. DPW Solar, popularly identified for their Power-FAB® solution line, supplies easy-to-set up mounting systems and enclosures. A solar panel stand frame is the cheapest and easiest way to get far more energy from the panels. Each rooftop and ground mounted solar arrays have to endure substantial forces which includes not only the weight of the panels but high wind loads as well. Tracking systems can improve the production of your solar panels by 25 percent or much more. Since a flat roof is typically level, your solar provider will use a ballasted (or weighted) mounting method on top of your roof alternatively of drilling into it. This mounting program makes use of a weighted foot” as the base for your solar panels to lock into. Ballasted mounts only operate on flat or low-slope roofs, and they have to be effectively-engineered to deal with the significant amount of extra weight added by the concrete blocks holding the method in spot. The tracker manufacturer will provide all the array mounting hardware and directions for securely installing the tracker. Powerful aluminum frames support 2 rows of panels above snow and grass. In basic, roof mounting of solar panels is far more complicated than either ground mounting or pole mounting Roof mounts are far more tough to set up and preserve, particularly if the roof orientation and angle are not compatible with the optimum solar array tilt angle. These long lasting, higher high quality steel mounting frames are created in Japan by Teramoto Iron Operates and are customized to suit the sort of ship they will be installed on. Several varieties of marine grade PV modules are obtainable and each one particular is matched to a PV mounting frames. Total 313 solar assistance frame factories & companies identified with 939 products. In my opinion, there is practically nothing far more helpful to producing a lot more energy from my solar panels than making use of this solar panel stand kit for the cost. Mount the Panels. So the very first step to determining what variety of solar mounting system you must choose is actually figuring out exactly where you are going to be capable to get the most sunlight. The assistance structure can either have hinged framework connections throughout the array or can comprise a monolithic rigid structure. Numerous companies are now producing what is identified as glass-glass, dual glass or double glass solar panels which ought to not be confused with bifacial technologies. But during the winter because the sun is so considerably reduce in the sky , laying the solar panels on the ground will usually only make about 50% as much energy as when they are on the mounting rack. And if you are installing the solar power technique on the roof of your residence, bear in mind you are only measuring that portion of the roof with a southern exposure (and not shaded by a 70 year old oak tree).

0031 Yet another object is to provide a floating support technique for a solar panel array that can be deployed on little and massive bodies of water, such as agricultural reservoirs, water district retention ponds, large reservoirs, lakes, ponds, and the like. The quantity of direct sunlight could influence the direction in which your solar panels are installed. With roof pitch solar 2m Squared Thermosiphon collector mounting frame. If you favor making more than getting solar cells, you will need to have to repeat this method till you attain the quantity of cells you want for your DIY solar panel. Of the best brands that we compared, the lightest was SunPower, with some panels weighing as little as 33 pounds. 9. The floating help structure of claim 8, wherein a solar panel array is divided into quadrants, and mentioned mooring and anchoring technique includes 4 continuous mooring line segments, 1 for each quadrant of the array. Show case your PV panels with a uniquely, trendy support technique. This system can be implemented on open ground attached to concrete foundations or on a tin roof with a low angle of slope for that further strength. Solar pv panel mounting frames offer a basic remedy for safe and secure installation of a solar array. Every client has exclusive requirements, and ISA Corporation will perform individually with every single a single to create sustainable and price-efficient mounting elevated racks and frames. Flush mounted evacuated tube support frame fixings for sheet metal roof. 17, 2008 and five,715,640 entitled Mounting Device for Controlling Uplift of a Metal Roof” which issued to Haddock on Feb. As a guide, this mounting technique is £2500+VAT for systems of up to 29 panels. These days, you’d be much better off employing a fixed ground mount or pole mount and adding a couple of more panels to cover the extra output. It is easier to have a continuous row of solar panels if they are installed vertically. Installation is the quickest with these new non-penetrating systems due to the fact your solar provider does not have to find a rafter, drill into it, and then install your rails and your solar panels. The leading countries of supplier is China, from which the percentage of solar panel assistance frame supply is one hundred% respectively. Solar cells are one particular of the most crucial materials for making your solar panels. Solar panels are created using a series of PV cells protected by glass, EVA and a protective back sheet housed in a tough aluminium frame. Even if you are a excellent candidate for a rooftop solar power technique, there are numerous benefits to picking a ground-mounted solar panel method. Shingled cells are an emerging technologies which uses overlapping thin cell strips which can be assembled either horizontally or vertically across the panel. Solar tracking systems are add-ons to solar mounts that are made to support turn the panels to face directly at the sun all through the day. Simply because you want to leave additional space between the panels so that one row of panels does not cast a shadow on the row behind it. I also feel that tilt frames are butt-ugly. Illustrate a creating 21 having a tilted roof 23, preferably produced from sheet metal sections joined with each other at folded more than, raised standing seams 25. Auxiliary roof elements, preferably numerous photovoltaic or solar panel assemblies 27, are secured to seams 25 by way of numerous fastening systems 29. Every photovoltaic panel assembly involves metal and glass sheets 30 with silicon wafers, attached to peripheral mounting frames 111. Now, there are lots of factors to think about here: very first you want to strategy your price range so you would know how significantly income you have to invest and then you can move onto picking out solar cells. These are sometimes referred to as BIPV, or Creating Integrated PV. You save on the price of roofing components, and the visual appearance is nice. They come in various types to suit the installation, such as tilt frame, tilt legs, flat roof-mounted or ground-mounted. They are also surprisingly affordable, since they can typically and very easily be flat mounted to the roof. Right here we highlight the very best good quality solar panel makers utilizing the latest solar cell innovations to create the most effective and reliable panels with the longest life and highest functionality. With purlin roofs, the module is horizontally mounted for clip mounting, as a normal. As the snow settles on the bottom of the solar panels, it will maintain the strings of solar cells that run lengthwise along the solar panel clear of snow and in a position to convert sunlight into power.

One of the most common kinds of solar panel mounts observed and suggested right now are roof mounts. Mounts are utilised to attach solar panels to the roof, ground, or yet another surface on your property. In several circumstances, a specific panel manufacturer will also provide the rack mount specifically for their panels. A simple roof inspection can help you figure out whether the further weight of solar panels are a viable selection for your property. With all the concerns with tilt frames with additional spacing and shadows and so forth, I was considering of going with lying them flat. Most residential PV systems are mounted on roofs. The sturdy pipes in triangulation give an excellent supporting frame with a tiny give to supply some flexibility for those inadvertent bumps and knocks. It genuinely makes almost everything worth it since the whole point of possessing solar is to make as much power as possible with totally free power from the sun. Canadian Solar – A single of the best values for solar panels. As many individuals are nervous about roof penetrations on a flat roof, these south-facing ballasted systems can enhance your yield if you’ve got lots of roof space, without having penetrating your climate proofing. When we originally place together our electrical method we purchased Renogy’s 400-watt MPPT solar kit , which comes with four 100-watt panels. So, although on paper, the two kinds of panels could produce the exact same quantity of energy, this benefit indicates ground panels usually get much more sunlight, allowing them to generate a lot more power, saving more cash. What most folks do not comprehend is every set of solar panels stand legs are designed to be used with a single panel only. Solar trackers can assist salvage these hours when the sun just isn’t shining straight on the panels like it requirements to be. Some of the panels have a constructed-in angle-adjustment, permitting you to get the optimal angle for gathering sunlight all through the year and improving your solar sun number score in accordance. I typically use one hundred-watt solar panels with my solar generators and each solar panel typically about 22 inches wide. Roof mounts have a tendency to be the least costly way to mount your solar program simply because they take advantage of your existing roof structure to supply a foundation for your panels. ten. The floating help structure of claim 9, wherein mentioned mooring line segments are splayed radially to offer resistance for loading in the East- West path and to provide torsional stability of the array, and additional including anchor components comprising one particular or much more concrete deadman, a ground anchor, a pile, or any combination thereof. The only issue i can feel of is that the installer may not like the concept to stay away from complaint if the panel may not secured due to the fact the panel owner hold creating changes to the tilt angle more than time. The steep angle of pole mounts naturally aids snow removal, as the weight of the snow causes it to naturally slide off the face of the panels. From Solar Panel Components to aluminum solar panel frames, Johnson Brother’s has a resolution for your Solar Panel Frame needs. You will of course need adequate tools for developing your personal solar panels. eight. The floating support structure of claim 1, wherein stated mooring and anchoring method consists of a plurality of continuous lines threaded by means of operating pulleys attached so stated array, thereby supplying a constant tension force in stated continuous mooring lines, wherein lateral wind load forces imposed on the array are generally continuous in magnitude and vary in path based on the geometry of mentioned mooring lines. Several ground mounts are developed to hold the panels at a fixed angle all year round, which means that the panels won’t run at complete efficiency throughout the year. The kinematics of a continuous mooring line operating by way of pulleys and the style approach are comparable to the above-water mooring application except that in the occasion of water level rising and full wind load on the array, the array tends to be pulled down into the water at the array support points. Typically, ground mount solar panels price a bit far more than rooftop solar on a per-watt basis because of additional labor and permitting that may possibly be required for the installation. We are assuming for this installation that the panels will be installed side-by-side in a portrait orientation. Regardless of whether you are getting or producing solar cells, make positive that you have a lot more cells than planned for the solar panel you are creating as solar cells are naturally quite fragile and some could even be broken, so you will require to have a backup.

1 by way of 23, wherein like reference numerals refer to like elements in the a variety of views, there is illustrated a new and enhanced modular floating help structure for a solar panel array, generally denominated 100 herein. Therefore, I can only advocate for peace of thoughts that a diode is inserted for the duration of installation to cease energy floating back across the panel for the duration of the night. Roof Mount systems can be utilised with numerous roof types and Ground Mount systems can be secured on traditional concrete footings or on the straightforward to set up ground screw foundations. Let’s take a closer appear at the different mounting possibilities for your solar PV project. That getting said, if your property is not ideal for rooftop solar, installing a ground-mounted technique can actually save you a lot more cash in the extended run. If that’s essential to you, then rooftop panels may possibly be a much better choice. A technology which is becoming far more popular is the addition of DC power optimisers inside the solar panel. EnergySage reviewed item specifications for the leading 10 solar panel brands most frequently presented to homeowners in the EnergySage Solar Marketplace and compared the weight of their common 60-cell residential solar panels. And an extra $128 compared to the 12 panel system mounted on tilt-frames at 34°. To do this all I have to do is disconnect my cables from the solar panels that go to my solar generator. There are a couple important benefits of utilizing a pole mount as an alternative of a roof or ground mount. Hi Sr,One Question,Im Fascinating in Solar Panels,Do you have how I can created them?. Rack mount: The PV panels are captured by a metal framework specially designed to permit simple attachment and detachment of the panels. I am also not massive on getting a permanent installation of panels for a solar generator because in the event of a all-natural disaster I could drop my whole investment. This is no various with the solar mounting racks and frames that we provide. The most typical solar mounting alternative, railed systems generally include two rails positioned parallel to each other and wide sufficient apart to let a solar panel to nest on top of them. Whether we are speaking about economical crisis, energy outage or shortage, living off the grid or dealing with SHTF of any type, it is particular that solar energy is 1 of the very best and most practical ways of making use of electrical energy and providing your home with electricity. To attain this, the mooring system for the inventive floating help technique is made to distribute the forces equally at mooring help points of the array. The bus wire should then go at the finish of each line of solar cells, so that you could get 1 long line produced of many solar cells across the longitude of the primary frame. As with any big ticket purchase, shopping for a solar panel installation requires a lot of study and consideration, such as a thorough assessment of the companies in your area. Using the PVWatts site I see that if east facing panels in Melbourne at ten degrees are changed to north facing panels at 10 degrees, assuming identical shading situations, they will generate 7% a lot more. For larger industrial rooftop systems, the monetary losses are larger but still hardly ever adequate to warrant the expense of washing the panels. 7, there are shown connections 210 created amongst east-west frame members 124a to 124c, and 124b to 124d, of adjoining array modules 120a, 120b. Finally, ground-mounted solar panels are quite straightforward to access for cleaning and upkeep. Solar panels need to be tilted toward the sun to maximize their production. MPP (Maximum energy point) of the solar panel consists of MPP voltage (V mpp) and MPP present (I mpp): it is a capacity of the solar panel and the greater value can make greater MPP. Regular ground mounts are usually installed at a fixed angle and position, though there are adjustable alternatives for specific applications. There is no air gap in between the roof and the panels, so there is no cooling. Read our write-up about tilt & azimuth angle for an in-depth walkthrough on how to locate the excellent angle to mount your solar panels. PET is a plastic coating significantly like what disposable water bottles are made of. The factor to do is get versatile solar panels that have an ETFE finish which is assured to last for 20+ years. On the negative side, ground-mounted systems are a lot more expensive than roof-mount simply because they require concrete posts and rigid frames. The industry leading overall performance warranty is offered on both the SunPower Maxeon two and 3 series panels of up to 92%.

8 shows the hinged connection between N-S frame members 130a, 130b in adjoining array modules. Although rooftop solar arrays are the most frequent choice for homeowners, there are a lot of motives to think about a ground-mounted solar panel technique. 5A-5b show the installation of the N-S frame members atop the E-W frame members, which are in turn mounted to the floats. Angled brackets 200 (els) can be supplied to increase structural rigidity at the panel assistance connections 202. Whilst rooftop solar panels are the most typical variety, not everyone’s residence is suited to them. From a single panel mounted on a post to a large ground-mounted multi-kilowatt pv array. Wire (2.1.1.three): Our Renogy solar panels come with standard PV wire that is weatherproof and insulated (as long as there is no exposed copper wire). The subsequent thing is to divide the prime-to-bottom length of the roof by the long edge of the panels to come up with how a lot of rows will match in the space offered. The companies we offer are designed to offer trustworthy solar panel mounting structures for residential, commercial, and utility-scale projects and usually incorporate stamped engineering. In terms of the amount of energy developed, ground and rooftop panels are fairly much the identical, at least on the surface. If your home uses a lot of power, then ground-mounted panels may be much better for you. Although solar panels could get all the glory when you happen to be talking about how great solar energy is for lowering your electricity bills, generating green jobs, and saving the planet, solar mounting alternatives are just as critical. It is often wise to speak with a solar installer near you to see what your choices are for solar panel mounting. Even though railed systems are the most widespread solar mounting selection, rail-much less systems are certainly catching up. As opposed to the regular rack mount, the angles can be adjusted so that the panels are not parallel to the roof plane. Getting a solar mounting frame and roof panel too close to the edge of the roof, will improve drastically the wind forces on the panel and technique structure during heavy winds. Becoming the original patent holding U.S. manufacturer of the Rooftrac® “Best-Down” solar mounting program, one particular can be confident realizing they are getting provided with nothing at all but exceptional solar equipment merchandise. Solar panels perform nicely when they are cost-free of shade, or even in partial shadow, and the sun is directly above. The solar panel stand legs are the most crucial portion of the complete support mount. Targray’s portfolio of aluminum solar panel frames is a trusted source for PV module makers in search of superior mold sophistication at a competitive price. Flat roof mounting options are widespread for industrial and industrial buildings considering that they have large spans of wide open space best for solar panels. Putting solar panels directly onto the ground functions quite okay in the course of the summer time but in the course of the fall, winter and spring a solar panel stand makes a enormous distinction in power production. Photovoltaic panel frames are anodized and have a resistance in the area of 20 MOhm. All this essential was 3 standard pulpit rail mounting brackets that I attached to a stout sheet of aluminium bolted across the panel frame – greatest observed below with the panel folded down. The panel supports are mounted transversely across the N-S frame members and are preferably Z shaped rolled sheet metal with stiffeners, as necessary, to help the weight of a plurality of panels mounted on their upper edges. The typical size of solar panels employed in a rooftop solar installation is approximately 65 inches by 39 inches, or five.4 feet by 3.25 feet. Standard ground mounts use metal framing driven into the ground to hold your solar panels up at a fixed angle. This article will aid you recognize solar panel size, solar panel weight, and whether your roof can help solar panels. A pole mount is a tough rack or frame built to hold a set of solar cells that is mounted up on top of a single pole. Panels at 25 degrees will only create 8.two% far more power than these at degrees. In theory, trackers are helpful in optimizing the facing of your panels to squeeze each and every final drop of production out of your array. We will make certain that your solar panels are mounted in the correct location on your roof – as sometimes wind damage can happen if modules are mounted as well close to the edge or ridge of the roof. Anyway, it took ’em three days to solve all the ‘insurmountable’ troubles AND hand me a cheque for the energy racked up on the analog meter from the date of installation.

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